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Water Resources In Malaysia:


Authorities in charge : Ministry of Agriculture/Department of Irrigation and Drainage



1. Basic Data

  i) Mean Annual Precipitation : 2,985 mm/year

  ii) Average Annual Precipitation Per Capita : 50,000 m3 / year/person

  iii) Average Annual Run-off of Whole Country : 566 billion m3 / year

  iv) Profile of Rivers

      a) Number of river systems : approx. 150 river systems(approx. 1,800 rivers)

      b) Total length : over 38,000 km

      c) River administrators : each state government

2.Flood Control

  i) State of Improvement

      a) Current state:

       Structural Measures

          i. Improvement of river channel by dredging and canalisation

          ii. Construction of levees or embankment

          iii. Construction of flood diversion channel

          iv. Construction of flood retention reservoir

          v. Use of ponds for flood attenuation

          vi. Poldering (ring bund)

        Non-Structural Measures

          i. Control of development both inside and outside flood plain

          ii. Flood risk analysis and mapping

         iii. Control of land use change

          iv. Resettlement of population from flood-prone areas

          v. Flood proofing

          vi. Flood forecasting and warning system

      b) Current objectives:

        i. Implementation of flood mitigation projects which are economically justified.

        ii. Resettlement of people from flood plain which are flood-prone and subject to severe flooding.

        iii. Control of development activities as well as land use change in flood- prone areas.

        iv. Upgrading of flood forecasting and warning systems in areas susceptible to flooding.

        v. Implementation of flood proofing techniques to reduce damage to property.

      c) Current programs, etc. : Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996-2000)

   ii) Amount of Investment : RM 785 million (up to Sixth Malaysia Plan)

   iii) Flood Damages in Recent Years : 1971 Flood in Klang Valley,City of Kuala Lumpur -140 km2 area inundated, affecting 180,000 people with damages amounting to RM 36 million (1980 price level)

   iv) Main Measures:

      i. Establishment of Permanent Flood Control Commission

      ii. Setting up of flood disaster relief machinery

      iii. Designation of flood mitigation as an additional function of Department of Irrigation and Drainage.

      iv. Carrying out of river basin studies.

      v. Implementation of flood mitigation programme and projects.

      vi. Implementation of flood forecasting and warning system.

      vii. Public education.

   v) Future Tasks:

      i. Continue implementing flood mitigation programme and projects.

      ii. In the event of flooding, to minimise damage and loss of life and property.

3. Water Resources

(specific to irrigation sector)

  i) State of Improvement

      a) Current state:

       Irrigation water demand 9.6 billion m3 / year Granary Irrigation Schemes Total Area (210497 ha.)

         - Muda (95000 ha.)

         - Kedah (75500 ha.)

         - Perlis (19500 ha.)

         - P.Pinang (13000 ha.)

         - Kerian-Sg. Manik (30058 ha.)

         - Kerian (23439 ha.)

         - Sg. Manik (6619 ha.)

         - Seberang Perak(9510 ha.)

         - Barat Laur Selangor (19022 ha.)

         - KETARA (5100 ha.)

         - Kemasin-Semerak (7330 ha.)

         - KADA (31477 ha.)

       Total Area - Non-Granary Irrigation Schemes (130133 ha.)

      b) Current objectives:

       To maintain a balance between the demands of development and preservation of the environment.

      c) Current programs, etc. : Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996 - 2000)

  ii) Amount of Investment: RM 4,063 million (up to Sixth Malaysia Plan)

   iii) Drought in Recent Years: -

   iv) Main Measures:

      a) Construction of dams and reservoirs.

      b) Groundwater development for agricultural purposes.

   v) Future Tasks:

      a) Designation of additional forest reserves.

      b) Large scale reafforestation programmes supported by agro-forestry programmes.

     c) Expansion of tree cover to preserve habitats,safeguard water quality, reduce erosion and siltation and sustain climatic balance.

4. Erosion Control

  i) State of Improvement

      a) Current state: Protection of public facilities and infrastructure.

      b) Current objectives: Prevention of loss of valuable land and investment in public infrastructure.

      c) Implementation programs, etc.: Sixth and Seventh Malaysia Plan.

   ii) Amount of Investment: RM 37.5 million (Sixth Malaysia Plan)

  iii) Disasters in Recent Years:

      i. 1996 - Pos Dipang River mudslide, State of Perak.

      ii. 1995 - Genting Highland Road mudslide, State of Pahang.

      iii. 1991 - Highland Tower collapse, State of Selangor.

  iv) Main Measures:

      i. Hardening of river banks using rocks, sheet piles or concrete slabs/structures.

      ii. Turfing of river banks.

  v) Future Tasks:

      i. Implementation of flood mitigation projects whereby river banks are lined or turfed to protect against erosion.

      ii. Preparation of river erosion master plan to give prior warning to landowners so as to undertake protection measure.

      iii. Provision of adequate river reserves to act as buffer zones.

5. Shore Protection Works

  i) State of Improvement.

      a) Current state:

          Total length of shoreline - 4,809 km.

          Eroding shoreline (Three categories) - 1,390 km.

          Category 1 (Critical eroding shoreline) - 226 km. (72 areas affected).

          Category 2 (Significant eroding shoreline) - 228 km. (65 areas affected).

          Category 3 (Acceptable eroding shoreline) - 946 km. (77 areas affected).

      b) Current objectives :

          Two-pronged stategy (short and long term) for the control of coastal erosion. Short term strategy is to protect existing facilities and properties in the Category 1           requiring structural solutions such as construction of sea-walls, revetment, breakwaters, sand nourishment etc. Long term strategy is management focused and           aims to obviate the need for expensive protective works in the future through instituting non-structural measures such as land use planning and control.

     c) Implementation programs, etc. : National Coastal Erosion Control Program and ADB loan for National Coastal Erosion Control Sector Project.

   ii) Amount of Investment: RM 140 million (1991-95)

   iii) Disasters in Recent Years: Nil

   iv) Main Measures :

      i. Control of coastal erosion.

      ii. Improvement of river mouths.

      iii. Control of development in the coastal zone / Develop guidelines for development.

   v) Future Tasks :

      Promote the formulation of a National Coastal Resources Management Policy at the national level and Coastal Zone Management Plan at the state level.


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Designed by: Unit Komputer, BSAH..
Year Of Launch:
Ver. 1 : Dis 2002
Ver. 2 : Apr 2005